AIC Judd Award



Since 1973, when Betty Judd proposed to establish an AIC award in memory of her husband, Deane Brewster Judd, to recognize outstanding work in the field of color science, the AIC has been carrying out the process of selection of the recipients for this award every two years. The selection is an arduous procedure that includes nominations by AIC members and analysis of antecedents of the nominees by a Committee composed of previous recipients of the award. The researchers who have received this award are presented below. The list of their most important publications is a solid collection of colour research that should be remembered and used.


at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Tokyo, Japan

Françoise Viénot [1946-] (France)

Emeritus professor, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Expert in color vision and appearance measurement, research on colorimetry, photometry, gloss metrics and LED illumination. French representative and former officer of CIE Division 1 (Vision), chair of CIE TC 1-36 “Chromaticity diagram with physiologically significant axes”, vice-president of CIE-France. Newton medal (Colour Group of Great Britain) and Verriest medal (International Colour Vision Society).




at the AIC 12th Congress, Newcastle, UK

Roy S. Berns [1954-] (USA)

Professor in Color Science, Appearance, and Technology, Director of the Munsell Color Science Lab at Rochester Institute of Technology. Awarded by the ISCC, the Society of Imaging Science and Technology and the Colour Group of Great Britain. Author of the 3rd ed. of Billmeyer and Saltzman’s Principles of color technology, and over 200 publications. Main research focus: color and imaging sciences for the visual arts.

The 2011 Judd Award was sponsored by pro/colore, the Swiss Color Association.



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Zurich, Switzerland

Lucia R. Ronchi [1927-] (Italy)

For her contributions to color vision research, physiological optics and color imaging science —particularly from a psychophysical approach—, which are reflected in a huge number of publications, as well as for her continuous involvement in the AIC activities, study groups, congresses and meetings, where her proposals concerning color language and philosophy, AIC history and other matters have a lasting impact.

The 2009 Judd Award was sponsored by the Colour Society of Australia.



at the AIC 11th Congress, Sydney, Australia

Arne Valberg [1938-] (Norway)

For his outstanding contributions to the understanding of the processes involved in light and color vision. His publications in the field of vision science, his activities as organizer of meetings in related fields of research, as well as his individual and joint research projects in psychophysics and electrophysiology of vision constitute truly seminal works.

The 2007 Judd Award was partially sponsored by the Colour Society of Australia



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Hangzhou, China

Alan R. Robertson [1940-] (Canada)

For his seminal work in accurate color measurement and color difference evaluation, his contributions to a wide variety of other fields of color science and metrology, such as studies on color order systems that attempted to resolve differences in philosophy between the Munsell and NCS systems, and his commitment to disseminate his knowledge to others.

The 2005 Judd Award was sponsored by the German Society of Color Studies.



at the AIC 10th Congress, Granada, Spain

John B. Hutchings [1932-] (Great Britain)

He represents one of the most precious aspects of the AIC: its role as a meeting place for people from different disciplines. Being a physicist, his work in the food industry has taken him outside the realm of physics and led him to look at the way color works in the wider world, in nature and culture. His book Food colour and appearance is a milestone in the field.



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Bangkok, Thailand

Mitsuo Ikeda [1933-] (Japan)

In recognition of his dedicated educational and research contributions to the field of vision and color psychophysics (all his former students are active in related fields in Japan, and many of them are also active internationally), and for his contribution to the AIC activities, especially to an expansion of the AIC in Asian countries. He was the 9th AIC president.



at the AIC 9th Congress, Rochester, USA

Roberto Daniel Lozano [1934-] (Argentina)

For his contributions to color and appearance measurement in a great variety of industrial applications, and his efforts to spread the knowledge of the problems related to color in Latin America. He has mainly worked on large-field color matching, photometry, retroreflective materials, color difference formulae, goniophotometric measurement, and color in food.



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Warsaw, Poland

Fred Wallace Billmeyer Jr. [1924-2004] (USA)

For a lifetime of significant contributions to the field of color. Foremost, for his dedication to color education. He established and directed The Rensselaer Color Measurement Laboratory, published over 275 articles and thirteen books on color and polymers, drafted a dozen important ASTM standards, and founded the journal Color Research and Application.


at the AIC 8th Congress, Kyoto, Japan

Anders Hård [1922-2009] (Sweden)

Gunnar Tonnquist [1925-] (Sweden)

Lars Sivik [1933-] (Sweden)

Their decades lasting joint effort culminated in the NCS, the Natural Color System and its atlas. The research was characterized by the phenomenological analysis of the experience of color in the spirit of Hering.



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Berlin, Germany

Heinz Terstiege [1934-2001] (Germany)

For his contributions to a variety of colorimetric aspects brought up while formulating technical standards or reports in Germany as well as in international organizations such as CIE and the ISO. Terstiege was the 6th president of the AIC, and the organizer of the AIC quadrennial congress 1981, the Interim Meeting 1990, and the Midterm Meeting 1995 in Berlin.



at the AIC 7th Congress, Budapest, Hungary

Yoshinobu Nayatani [1927-2009] (Japan)

In recognition of his work on colorimetry and color vision, including many contributions to models of chromatic adaptation and color appearance. He has studied the assessment of sources simulating the CIE daylight illuminants, worked on the assessment of observer metamerism, and on the prediction of color appearance.



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Sydney, Australia

Johannes J. (Hans) Vos (The Netherlands)

Pieter L. Walraven [1931-2013] (The Netherlands)

For many contributions to the understanding of the mechanisms of color vision. Vos and Walraven combined approach gave the mathematical basis to the two-stage color vision model, which brings together the trichromatic theory and the opponent colors theory.



at the AIC 6th Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Tarow Indow [1923-2007] (Japan, USA)

In recognition of his extensive contributions to the science and technology of color, and in particular for his work on the method of multidimensional scaling and his work in which the global structure of the Munsell color space is examined by the method and its variations. Indow was also the third president of the AIC.



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Florence, Italy

Robert William Gainer Hunt [1923-] (Great Britain)

Among his contributions are: the work on color negative films, the telecine transfer of film to television, the reproduction of reversal film using graphic art materials, the assessment of color appearance and the ability of an observer to scale the hue, colorfulness and lightness of a surface color using a variety of adaptation conditions. He was the 5th AIC president.



at the AIC 5th Congress, Monte Carlo, Monaco

Leo Maurice Hurvich [1910-2009] (USA)

Dorothea Jameson [1920-1998] (USA)

For their fundamental contributions to the science of color vision. In particular, their collaborative research provided quantitative bases for an opponent-process mechanism of color vision and for the elaboration of that concept through extensive experimentation and teaching.



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Kungälv, Sweden

David Lewis MacAdam [1910-1998] (USA)

Known as the author of the MacAdam ellipses, his research has also included work on optimal colors, loci of dominant wavelength and purity, uniform chromaticity diagrams, chromatic adaptation, use of computers for colorimetric computation, loci of constant brightness and hue, and the basis for colorimetrically exact color reproduction.



at the AIC 4th Congress, Berlin, Germany

Manfred Richter [1905-1990] (Germany)

In recognition of his extensive contributions to the science and technology of color. In particular, for his work in teaching, standardization, and the development of colorimetric science and its application. His most well known effort in standardization was the monumental task of developing the DIN color order system.



at the AIC Midterm Meeting, Tokyo, Japan

Gunter Wyszecki [1925-1985] (Germany, USA, Canada)

His prolific career covered many areas of color science. He is well known for his co-authorship of two outstanding books: Color in business, science and industry (with D. B. Judd), and Color science: concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulas (with W. S. Stiles). Wyszecki was president of the CIE, and led the Colorimetry Committee for many years.



at the AIC 3rd Congress, Troy, New York, USA

William David Wright [1906-1997] (Great Britain)

For his distinguished career, which featured studies of color vision and color-vision deficiencies, and produced much of the fundamental data incorporated in the standard observer of the CIE system for colorimetry used since 1931. Wright was professor of physics at the Imperial College, London, and served as the first president of the AIC.



at the AIC 3rd Congress 1977, Troy, NY, USA

Dorothy Nickerson [1900-1985] (USA)

In recognition of her studies centered on the color grading of agricultural products, uniform color spaces, color differences, and the color rendering of light sources. Nickerson had a distinguished career in the United States Department of Agriculture, following an early association with the Munsell Color Company.